The Most Comprehensive Financial Dictionary with over 1000 Financial Terms Explained - Clear and Concise Article Style Description with Practical Examples
Financial Words Starting with C 2017-08-15T10:44:27+00:00
C Corporation
C Corporations refers to the primary subchapter under which American businesses decide to incorporate themselves in order to restrict the total financial and legal liabilities of the owners. Such C Corporations prove to be the principle alternatives to S Corporations, whose profits are able to pass directly through to the owners and so only become taxable on the individual level. [...]
Call Option
A call option is a contract that grants a person the right, and yet not the requirement, to purchase a given security at a certain price by a certain cut off time. The securities that have call options associated with them are generally stocks, commodities, bonds, and certain other instruments. Call options are commonly abbreviated as simply calls. In practice, [...]
Cap Rate
Cap rate refers to the real estate property and its rate of return. Investors figure this out by utilizing the income which they anticipate the property will generate. The cap rate is also referred to as the capitalization rate. Realtors utilize it to gauge how much return investors will realize on their investments. The way people determine this cap rate [...]
Capital Account
Capital Account demonstrates the net changes in the financial asset ownership for any country. When added in with the national current account, this makes up the given country’s balance of payments. This capital account will always include such things as portfolio investment and FDI foreign direct investment as well as any changes in the reserve account. It is also possible [...]
Capital Adequacy Ratio
The Capital Adequacy Ratio refers to a metric for sizing up the capital of a given bank. It is usually written out in terms of a percentage of the risk weighted credit exposures of a bank. This formula is also referred to as CRAR or capital to risk weighted assets ratio. It is commonly employed to help ensure that the [...]
Capital Appreciation
Capital appreciation refers to the increase in an asset’s value. This gain is based on the increase in the market price of the asset. It primarily happens as the asset which an investor backed goes for a greater market price than the investor first paid for the asset in question. The part of the asset which is considered to be [...]
Capital Controls
Capital Controls refer to government intervention measures that a sovereign national government undertakes either directly, through the central bank, or another regulatory agency. They institute these in an effort to reduce the outflow of foreign capital (and sometimes the inflow as well) from the domestic national economy. There are a wide range of such controls. Among these are tariffs, taxes, [...]
Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditure refers to money that a firm employs to purchase physical assets. This can also be used to upgrade existing assets. These can include items such as equipment, industrial buildings, and property. It is also known as CapEx. Companies often use this CapEx to make new investments or to begin a new project. Other corporations utilize capital expenditures to [...]
Capital Flight
Capital flight refers to the major scale departure of money and financial assets out of a country. This usually occurs because of geopolitical events including economic volatility or political instability, capital controls, or deliberate currency devaluation. There are times when such a flight of capital is legal. An example of this is when investors choose to repatriate their foreign-based capital [...]
Capital Flows
Capital Flows relate to the general movements of money and investments so that they can be invested in securities, business, or trade production. This also takes into consideration flows of such capital that occur naturally within a multinational corporation. This might result from capital spending in other divisions, investment capital allocation, acquisitions of rival companies, or R&D research and development [...]
Capital Gains
Capital gains refer to profits that arise when you sell a capital asset like real estate, stocks, and bonds. These proceeds must be above the purchase price to qualify as capital gains. A capital gain is also the resulting difference between a low buying price and a high selling price that leads to a financial gain for investors. The opposite [...]
Capital Gains Tax
Capital Gains Tax refers to as United States’ government assessed tax on capital gains. To better understand this idea, you must first grasp what capital gains actually are. Capital gains occur as individuals sell assets at a greater price than those at which they originally purchased them, known as the cost basis. Besides capital gains, there can also be capital [...]
Capital Inflow
Capital Inflow refers to money (in the form of investments) moving into a certain benefitting nation. The country which is the recipient of the inflow is best known as the host country. The source countries are the ones sending or investing the initial funds. Host nations often have a range of causes for attracting such capital inflows. Direct foreign investment [...]
Capital Loss
Capital Loss refers to a type of loss that companies or individuals experience as one of their capital assets decreases by value. This includes a real estate or investment asset. The loss only becomes realized when the asset itself sells for less than the price for which it was originally purchased. Another way of looking at these capital losses is [...]
Capital Markets
Capital markets refer to those marketplaces for the sales and purchase of both debt and equity financial issues. These markets move investments and savings back and forth between capital suppliers like institutional and retail investors to capital users. These are individual entrepreneurs, businesses and corporations, and governmental agencies. Economies do not function efficiently or successfully without such liquid markets of [...]
Capital Outflow
Capital Outflow is a phenomenon where financial assets and money move away from a given nation. All countries of the world consider this to be a negative action. It typically occurs as a result of economic and/or political instability or at least the perception of it. Such asset flight results from domestically and especially foreign-based investors choosing to sell their [...]
Capital Stock
A business’ capital stock is the up front capital that the founders of the firm invest in or put into the company. This capital stock also proves useful as security for a business’ creditors. This is because capital stock may not be taken out of the business to disadvantage the creditors in question. Such stock is separate from a business’ [...]
Carl Icahn
Carl Icahn is a billionaire corporate raider, investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist. He earned a vast fortune operating as one of the infamous corporate raiders of Wall Street back in the 1980s. He is consistently ranked in the top 100 richest men, and he secured the spot of 43 on the Forbes’ billionaire list for 2016. Carl Icahn was [...]
Case Shiller Index
The Case Shiller Index represents the collection of United States’ Home Price Indices. These were developed by economists Karl Case and noted Yale Professor Robert Shiller. The two men’s company Case Shiller Weiss, Inc. produced the statistics from 1991-2002. Allan Weiss their partner oversaw the production and release of the index on a regular basis. This index is a collection [...]
Cash Flow
Cash Flow is either an incoming revenue or outgoing expense stream that affects the value of any cash account over time. Inflows of cash, or positive cash flows, typically result from one of three possible activities, including operations, investing, or financing for businesses or individuals. Individuals are also able to realize positive cash flows from gifts or donations. Negative cash [...]
Cash Flow Quadrant
The cash flow quadrant is a diagram that shows four types of individuals involved in a business. These four people make up the entire business world. The four quadrants are E, S, B, and I. The E quadrant stands for employees. Employees have the same core values in general. This is security. When any employee sits down with a manager [...]
Cash Flow Statement (CFS)
The Cash Flow Statement (CFS) proves to be one of three critical components in any corporation’s financial reports. The other two are income statements and balance sheets. From 1987, the SEC Securities Exchange Commission has mandated that such cash flow statements be included with all corporate financial reports. This statement details the quantities of cash and cash equivalents that come [...]
Cash Management
Cash management refers to the corporate functions of gathering, handling, and short term investing cash. This represents a critical part of making certain a firm is financially viable and stays solvent. In many cases, the business managers of a company or corporate treasurers of a large corporation will handle the aggregate cash management responsibilities. This means they will be responsible [...]
Cash On Cash Return (CCR)
Cash on cash return, also known by its acronym CCR, is an investing term. It describes a ratio of the yearly cash flow before taxes against the total sum of cash invested. This cash on cash return is expressed as a percentage. Cash on cash return is mostly utilized to analyze any income generating asset’s actual cash flow situation. This [...]
Cash Operating Cost
Cash Operating Cost refers to a cash flow statement which effectively follows all cash types of business expenditures. It is in the first section of a cash flow statement, the operating activities, that keeps all relevant and pertinent information regarding the cash operating costs. Such expenses are derived from the firm’s information on financial accounting. It does not matter if [...]
Cash Reserves
Cash reserves refer to money which an individual person, a company, or a corporation saves in order to be ready to cover any emergency funding or short term requirements. They can also be utilized to refer to a kind of extremely liquid, short term investment which usually garners a poor rate of return (under three percent in a year). An [...]
Cash Savings Account
A cash savings account is a place that you can park your cash and gain interest on it. Effective short term savings accounts are ones that permit you to meet your needs in four important areas. The access to the funds is critical. Cash savings accounts should allow you to withdraw funds from the account whenever you need. This should [...]
Cashless Society
A Cashless Society refers to an economic environment where money is not used in physical coins and notes any longer to carry out financial transactions of any kind. In its place, a digital information transfer, represented by electronic forms of money such as that in bank account, moves back and forth between the parties of the transaction. In the distant [...]
CBOE Volatility Index (VIX)
The CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) refers to the VIX ticker symbol on the CBOE Chicago Board Options Exchange. This is the famed volatility index that displays the expectations of the market for future volatility in the markets over the coming 30 days. This number comes from utilizing the implied volatilities from a huge selection of the index options on the [...]
Central Bank
Central banks are national monetary authorities or reserve banks that are given the unique privilege and responsibility of loaning a government its currency. Central banks have many of the same characteristics that traditional banks do, such as charging set rates of interest on loans that they make to borrowers like the government of the country that they represent, or alternatively [...]
Certificate of Deposit (CD)
A Certificate of Deposit refers to a kind of savings vehicle which generally provides greater returns for money invested than the typical savings accounts do. There is very little risk in such an account. They also come without monthly fees. Besides this, these CDs prove to be significantly different from the age old savings accounts for several reasons. Such a [...]
Certificate of Occupancy
A certificate of occupancy is a local government issued document. These papers give permission for tenants or residents to occupy a new building or even a residence. The reason that local governments mandate such certificates is because of building codes. The certificate proves that a building inspector has certified the building to be safe so that it can be occupied. [...]
Certificate of Title
A certificate of title represents a document which states who the owners or owner of real estate or personal property actually are. It is issued by a municipal or state government. This certificate gives evidence of any ownership rights. In general a title insurance company will issue a certificate of title opinion on a house or piece of property. This [...]
Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
CPA’s, or certified public accountants, are accountants who have taken and successfully completed a series of demanding exams that are given by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Many states also have their own state level exams that have to be passed along with the national one. CPA’a are accountants in every sense of the word, but not every [...]
Cession Deed
A cession deed is used to give up property rights to a government authority. It is possible for individuals, companies, or organizations to sign a cession deed with a state or the federal government in the U.S. Cession deeds have generally been utilized between great imperial powers like the United States or Great Britain and smaller independent entities such as [...]
CFA Institute
The CFA Institute stands for the Chartered Financial Analyst institute. This global organization was formerly called the AIMR Association for Investment Management and Research. This institute is made up of over 70,000 individual members (from 137 different member societies located in 60 countries) who have the CFA Chartered Financial Analyst designation or who instead agree to be bound up by [...]
Chain of Title
A chain of title refers to the consecutive historical transfers in a title on a particular piece of real estate property. These chains start with the current owner of the property and trace their way back to the property’s first owner. Reconstructing such a chain can be extremely important when a lender needs complete ownership documentation. Such title documents are [...]
Chapter 11 Bankruptcy
Chapter 11 Bankruptcy proves to be a specific type of bankruptcy. This kind has to do with the business assets, debts, and affairs being reorganized. The business reorganization filing was named for the Section 11 of the United States’ Bankruptcy Code. Corporations commonly file it that need some time to rearrange the terms of their debts and their business operations. [...]
Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
Chapter 7 bankruptcy is a form of protection from creditors. Unlike Chapter 13 bankruptcy, it does not have any repayment plan. In the Chapter 7 a bankruptcy trustee determines what eligible assets the debtor individual or company has. The trustee then collects these available assets, sells them, and distributes proceeds to the creditors against their debts. This is all done [...]
Charge Off
A charge off refers to an expense item found on a corporation’s income statement. This could be one of two things. It might be connected with a debt that the reporting firm has decided is not realistically collectable. They would then write this off from the corporate balance sheet. It might also be a likely one time only expense which [...]
Charles Schwab
The Charles Schwab Brokerage was created when “Chuck” Schwab started a discount brokerage in 1975. From this point on the company led the investing industry by innovating in a variety of ways. In 1982, they expanded their offerings  to include 24 hours per day, 7 days per week service. They launched their financial advisor service in 1987. The company began [...]
Chicago Board of Options Exchange (CBOE)
CBOE is the acronym for the Chicago Board of Options Exchange. The exchange arose in 1973. Since then it has grown to become the biggest options’ market on the planet. As a market leader in technological innovation and creative financial products that are new and ground breaking, it has pushed the envelope on electronic forms of trading over the years. [...]
Citigroup
By number of countries and territories in which it operates as well as raw numbers of customers, Citigroup is the largest global bank. The United States based banking giant offers a substantial variety of financial products and services to its 100 million individual, corporate, institutional, and government customers around the world. The bank maintains a presence in more than 100 [...]
Clearing House
A Clearing House refers to a financial intermediary that exists between sellers and buyers of financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, futures, options, and mutual funds. At the same time, it is also an agency which operates in tandem with a futures exchange. In this capacity, they handle clearing trades, settling trading accounts, collecting and maintaining monies for margin accounts, [...]
Closed End Funds
Closed end funds refer to those investment companies which are publicly traded and regulated by the SEC Securities and Exchange Commission. They are similar to mutual funds in some ways. Both represent investment funds which are pooled and overseen by a portfolio manager. The closed end varieties raise fixed amounts of capital. They do this in IPO initial public offerings. [...]
Closeout Sale
A closeout sale represents the last sale for a given item from a retailer. It could also refer to the last offers from a retailer in its inventory it provides to the public or another company. Sometimes certain items simply are not selling effectively. Other time it may be that a retailer is forced to sell off its inventory thanks [...]
Closing Costs
Closing costs are the fees that are charged when you buy a house. Many other costs are associated with buying a house than only the down payment. These closing costs are fees like recording fees, title policies, courier charges, inspections, lender fees, and start up reserve fees to create an impound account. The most expensive component of these closing costs [...]
CME Group
The CME Group is the Chicago Mercantile Exchange group of futures market companies. It calls itself the most diverse and global leading marketplace for futures and derivatives. The group itself is made up of four different DCM Designated Contract Markets. These include the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), and the Commodity [...]
CMG Plans
CMG Plans are special mortgage plans. In these types of plans, the mortgage of the borrower is set up to work like a checking account does. Instead of depositing the employee’s payroll to a traditional checking account at a bank, the individual’s company deposits paychecks directly into the mortgage account. Once a check deposits, the mortgage balance owed by the [...]
Collaboration
Collaboration proves to be a process where two or more individuals or entities choose to work in concert on behalf of a common goal or endeavor. Intellectual enterprises and other activities that tend to be creative by their nature are often most effectively accomplished through collaboration, which involves learning together, mutually sharing knowledge, and building up consensus. Scientific collaboration is [...]
Collateral
Collateral refers to an asset or piece of Real Estate which borrowers provide as security to lenders in exchange for a loan. This property actually secures the mortgage or other form of loan. In the event that the borrowers do not continue to make the agreed upon payments on the loan according to the laid out schedule, the financial institution [...]
Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDO)
Collateralized Debt Obligations are one of the financial weapons of mass destruction that helped to derail the global financial system in the financial crisis of 2007-2010. They are literally securities that are supposed to be of investment grade. The backing of collateralized debt obligations proves to be pools of loans, bonds, and similar assets. These investments are rated by the [...]
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)
Collateralized mortgage obligations are investments that contain home mortgages. These mortgages underlie the securities themselves. These CMO yields and results derive from the home mortgage loans’ performance on which they are based. This is true with other mortgage backed securities as well. Lenders sell these loans to an intermediary firm. Such an intermediary pools these loans together and issues certificates [...]
Collectibles
Collectibles can be almost anything of real or notional value. People enjoy collecting everything ranging from coins and stamps to baseball cards and paintings. It is the thrill of obtaining things that are new and putting them alongside an existing collection that proves to be so addicting and rewarding for people. Collectibles can be obvious items of great value, such [...]
Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining  is the labor engagement of re-negotiating the employment terms in between a group of workers and an employer. Such terms of employment will often cover various elements including (but not limited to) working conditions, conditions of employment, various rules pertaining to the work place, overtime pay, base pay, working hours’ times and numbers of hours, work holidays, shift [...]
Collective Investment Fund (CIF)
A collective investment fund is a vehicles that manages a combined group of trust accounts. They are sometimes called collective investment trusts. Trust companies or banks operate these funds. The idea behind them is to pool together the funds and assets of organizations and individuals so that the managers can create bigger and better diversified portfolios. Two types of these [...]
Commercial Banks
Commercial banks are those financial institutions which offer a wide range of financial services to a variety of clients. Chief among these services are issuing loans and receiving deposits. The customers of such commercial financial institutions are able to avail themselves of a broad range of investment products that such banks offer. Included in these are certificates of deposit and [...]
Commercial Paper
Commercial paper proves to be a corporation-issued short term form of debt instrument which is unsecured. This paper is generally used to finance such things as inventories, accounts receivable, and other short term liabilities. The maturity dates for commercial paper vary, but they do not typically run any more than 270 days. Such paper instruments are generally issued at discounts [...]
Commodities
Commodities turn out to be items that are taken from the earth, such as orange juice, cattle, wheat, oil, and gold. Companies buy commodities to turn them into usable products like bread, gasoline, and jewelry to sell to other businesses and consumers. Individual investors purchase and sell them for the purposes of speculation, in an attempt to make a profit. [...]
Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
The CFTC is the regulatory agency whose acronym stands for the Commodities Futures Trading Commission. This group arose as a direct result of the Congressionally enacted Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974. Since that time, the group has carried the responsibility of regulating both the commodity options and futures markets. Their goals range from protecting investors from manipulative endeavors [...]
Commodity Broker
A commodity broker commonly is an individual who makes commodity trades for his or her customers. The term also refers to the brokerage company that manages the trades for whom this broker works. This is an oversimplification as there are several different kinds of brokers. Where the CFTC Commodities and Futures Trading Commission is concerned, there are FCM Futures Commission [...]
Commodity Exchange (COMEX)
The COMEX Commodity Exchange is the wholly owned subsidiary of the Chicago Mercantile Group that is responsible for both precious metals and base metals futures and options on futures trading. This once independent exchange is where the speculators, hedging companies, and traders all come to participate in trading FTSE 100 London exchange index options, along with precious metals silver and [...]
Commodity Futures Modernization Act (CFMA)
In the year 2000, the U.S. Government passed the Commodity Futures Modernization Act. The act did several things. First it reaffirmed the regulatory authority of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission over all American futures markets. This authority became extended for a period of five years with this act. A second and more significant result of the act came about as [...]
Commodity Markets
Commodity Markets refer to exchanges where individuals and businesses can trade, buy, or sell primary inputs and raw materials either in person or virtually (over the Internet or phones). These days there exist around 50 important commodities markets around the globe. Each of these works in some way to make trade and investment possible in around 100 different main commodities. [...]
Commodity Money
There are several forms of money which have been used throughout history. The oldest and best proven form is known as commodity money. A form of money invented in the past century which has become the major competitor to this historical currency is called fiat money. A newer post-modern technologically advanced form of spending power is today’s electronic money. All [...]
Commodity Trading Adviser
Commodity Trading Adviser refers to either a firm or alternatively an individual that delivers personalized advice on the purchasing and selling of futures contracts, foreign exchange contracts, or options on futures. For individuals to be commodity trading advisers, they will have to have a CTA registration which is required by the NFA National Futures Association regulatory organization with oversight on [...]
Common Securitization Platform (CSP)
During the financial crisis that started back in 2008, the federal government took control of both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac the government sponsored enterprises because they became insolvent. One of the ideas that the since-then managing agency the FHFA Federal Housing Finance Agency came up with is the Common Securitization Platform. This strategic goal resulted from the FHFAs 2014 [...]
Common Stock
Common stocks are shares in an underlying company that represent equity ownership in the corporation. They are also known as ordinary shares. These are securities in which individuals invest their capital. Common stock is the opposite of preferred stock. While common stock and preferred stock both represent ownership in the company, there are many important differences between the two. Should [...]
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary membership organization that counts 52 different equal and independent sovereign countries on its roster. Within these nations live 2.2 billion citizens. More than 60% of these residents are less than 30 years old. Included in the Commonwealth are countries which are among the smallest and largest as well as poorest and richest in [...]
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Compound Annual Growth Rate refers to the measurement which attempts to reduce the volatility of annual gains in growth during a set out number of years. The growth gains it considers include income, profits, customers, and more. The idea is to reduce the volatility over the years as if the growth had occurred evenly each year in the time frame [...]
Compound Interest
Compound interest represents interest which calculates on both the original principal amount as well as the interest that was accumulated previously during the loan or investment. Economists have called this miraculous phenomenon an interest on interest. It causes loans or invested deposits to increase at a significantly faster pace than only simple interest, the opposite of compound interest. Simple interest [...]
Compounding of Money
The compounding of money has everything to do with compound interest. Compounding of money through such compounding interest can become among the most potent of weapons in your investing arsenal. Compound interest allows your money to grow at a faster rate as a result of the way that the interest is added to your money’s balance. Various types of compound [...]
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
The Congressional Budget Office was created by Congress in 1975. Since that time, it has continuously developed and published its own independent analyses for economic and budget related issues. Its goal is to support the process of making Congressional budgets. Ever year the agency puts together literally hundreds of estimates for costs of proposed legislation as well as dozens of [...]
Constructive Eviction
Constructive eviction is a backdoor way of evicting a tenant. It is not done through legal means because of a tenant failing to pay rent or seriously breaking the property rules. It is instead the process of a landlord making a rental uninhabitable for the tenant. Though the term sounds positive, it is quite the opposite. Landlords who engage in [...]
Consumer Data Industry Association
Consumer reporting has become a huge business in the United States. It makes sense that they would have a large and important trade association. The Consumer Data Industry Association is this organization that functions as the industry trade association for credit reporting companies in the United States. While they have over 140 different corporate members, they represent approximately 200 companies [...]
Consumer Debt
Consumer debt refers to debts which individuals owe because of goods they have purchased. These goods must be consumable forms which do not appreciate in value to qualify for the designation. Having huge amounts of consumer debts is generally considered to be negative for individuals since it raises the burden on their resources to keep up with the debt servicing. [...]
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)
The CFPB is the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Congress created this government agency in 2008 as one of the reactions it took to the devastating financial crisis and Great Recession, the worst financial shocks to the system since the end of the 1930s era Great Depression. The idea was to erect an organization that would protect consumers from risks and [...]
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
The Consumer Price Index, also known by its acronym of CPI, actually measures changes that take place over time in the level of the pricing of various consumer goods and services that American households buy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. says that the Consumer Price Index is a measurement of the over time change in the prices [...]
Contango
Contango refers to an unusual situation in which a given commodity’s future price rises to a higher amount than the anticipated future spot price. As such, it also means that the commodity in question has a future date spot price that is lower than the present price. It relates that investors will pay a greater price for a commodity in [...]
Contingency
Contingency in business relates to insurance products that generally are not included within the most commonly accepted types of insurance products such as property, casualty, marine, and financial services handled by the majority of insurance companies. The London Market began the industry of contingency insurance products. These forms of insurance cover cancellation, non appearance, prize indemnity, transmission failure, weather, political [...]
Contrarian Investing
Contrarian Investing refers to a well-known style of investing which invests against the main going and popular market trends of the day. It does so through purchasing those assets which are performing poorly to later resell them when they outperform. An individual who proves to be a contrarian investor is of the opinion that those analysts who argue the market [...]
Conversion Discount
Conversion Discount refers to a special option applied to conversion investments. Understanding what a conversion is first becomes necessary in order to make sense of the discount clause. Conversions are the abilities to exchange some from of a convertible debt instrument into another kind of asset such as company stock. This conversion will be contractually spelled out at a prearranged [...]
Convertible Bond
A convertible bond is like a hybrid between a stock and a bond. Corporations issue these bonds which the bondholders may choose to convert into shares of the underlying company stock whenever they decide. Such a bond usually pays better yields than do shares of common stocks. Their yields are also typically less than regular corporate bonds pay. Convertible bonds [...]
Core CPI
Core CPI refers to the Consumer Price Index. This term revolves around the idea of core inflation. It reveals the longer term price trend in a given item or economy. Core CPI is a means of measuring inflation which leaves out some specific items, particularly those that experience volatility in their pricing. There is a reason for excluding these items. [...]
Core Holding
A Core Holding refers to a longer term investment which forms the basis of an investor’s portfolio or a corporation’s assets and operations. Where investments are concerned, one popular strategy for these common cores is to mostly own investments which follow the overall market like the S&P 500. It is through S&P 500 Index Funds that investors are able to [...]
Core Inflation
Core Inflation refers to the change in the cost of goods and services without calculating the important categories of food and energy. The U.S. federal government believes this to be the most accurate means of figuring up true inflationary trends. They claim that both energy products and food components are priced too volatilely to be a part of the core [...]
Corporate Banking
Corporate Banking refers to the banking services for businesses. It relates specifically to those accounts that apply to corporate clients. The United States initially employed the term to separate it from the branch of banking activity known as investment banking following the congressionally passed Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. This act separated out the two different activities for more than half [...]
Corporate Bonds
Corporate bonds are debt securities that a company issues and sells to investors. Such corporate bonds are generally backed by the company’s ability to repay the loan. This money is anticipated to result from successful operations in the future time periods. With some corporate bonds, the physical assets of a company can be offered as bond collateral to ease investors’ [...]
Corporate Finance
Corporate Finance refers to any and all sundry activities that pertain to the business of operating a corporation. This is typically done in a department or a division that is established with the specific goals in mind of running the financial side of the business. The main concentration of such activities and oversight lies in optimizing the stakeholder value via [...]
Corporate Taxes
Corporate Taxes refer to the United States’ based taxes on corporations. These are not the same for every business structured entity. Corporations receive completely different tax treatment from other business entity structures. In fact such corporations are the only kinds of firms in the U.S. which have to pay in their own profit-based income taxes. With LLC limited liability companies, [...]
Corporation
A corporation refers to a business entity where it is distinctive and separated from the owners. Such corporations may take on many responsibilities similar to individuals. They can borrow and loan out money, make and execute contracts, hire and terminate employees, sue or become sued, pay taxes, and own cash and assets. This is why corporations are many times referred [...]
Corporation Tax
Corporation Tax refers to a United Kingdom jurisdiction method of taxing companies and associations domiciled in Great Britain. For any business that is a limited company, or is a foreign firm that boasts a United Kingdom office or branch, or operates as a cooperative, club, or other type of unincorporated association, they must pay such taxes on any and all [...]
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)
The Cost of Goods Sold refers to those costs which directly arise from the creation of a firm’s goods or services. The phrase also sometimes is summarized by its acronym COGS or by an alternative name the “cost of sales.” It will cover many expenses. Among these are all of the materials the company utilizes to physically produce the goods. [...]
Cost of Living
Cost of living refers to the sum of money individuals require in order to maintain a given standard of living. The two concepts of standard of living and cost of living are therefore closely related. Expenses included in such a concept include all necessary costs for sustaining life, such as food, housing, health care, and taxes. This living cost frequently [...]
Cost of Living Index
The Cost of Living Index refers to a price index that was created so that businesses and individuals are able to compare and contrast the cost of living relative to other cities, regions, countries, and times. This theoretical index takes the measure of variations in the costs of different key goods and services. It also permits substitutions with other similar [...]
Cost Push Inflation
Cost-push inflation is a scenario where all around price levels go up, creating inflation. This happens because of rising prices in the important inputs of raw materials as well as higher wages for labor. This type of inflation appears because of rising production factors costs. This leads to a lower amount of total supply and production in the economy. With [...]
Cost Segregation
Cost segregation proves to be a procedure of identifying assets of personal property that commonly become lost or bunched together in the real property asset. Cost segregation involves reclassifying costs of assets to a depreciable life that is the shortest one possible. This allows owners of real estate to optimize their tax deductions in the depreciation category, which lessens the [...]
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
The President’s Council of Economic Advisors proves to be an agency of the President’s Executive Office. They give the President unbiased and non partisan economic advice for coming up with both international and national economic policies. This council is made up of three people of whom one is the chair. They use analysis of empirical evidence based on economic research [...]
Counter Offer
Counter offers are those made by home sellers after buyers have turned in an official offer to buy the house. Usually, such counter offers spell out the terms with which the seller will accept the buyer’s official initial offer. Many different specifics can be addressed with a counter offer. Some of these things include the consideration of a higher offering [...]
Counterfeit Money
Counterfeit money refers to fake currency which criminals create in an effort to imitate real currency produced and backed by a sovereign government. Such currency will always be designed in an effort to pass for real money so that it convinces people of its legitimacy. There are rare cases when such counterfeits are not produced to buy services and goods, [...]
Credit Agricole
Credit Agricole calls itself the foremost financial partner in the French economy. This is not idle boasting as they have a number of impressive accolades to their credit. It is rated the second largest bank in France and third largest banking group in Europe by assets. What makes it different from other global banks is that it proves to be [...]
Credit Analysis
Credit analysis refers to a kind of detailed consideration of a corporation or similar agency which issues debt. It is performed by managers of bond portfolios and investors. They seek to determine the ability of the borrower to cover their obligations of debt with this type of analysis. The ultimate goal is to discern the correct amount of default risk [...]
Credit Bureaus
Credit bureaus are agencies that collect financial information. They go by different names in various countries around the world. In the United Kingdom they are known as credit reference agencies. In Australia, the bureaus are called credit reporting bodies. India knows their credit agencies as credit information companies. Within the United States, these organizations are called consumer reporting agencies. Whatever [...]
Credit Crunch
A Credit Crunch refers to an economic malaise caused by the inadequacy of freely flowing investment capital which becomes harder to get. Both investors and banks suddenly become more choosy in whom they will loan money to. This includes corporations which are worthy of and deserving of the credit. It ultimately leads to the cost of debt products going higher [...]
Credit Default Swaps
A credit default swap, or CDS, is a contract exchange that transfers between two parties the exposure of credit to fixed income products. Two parties are involved in this exchange. The purchaser of a credit default swap obtains protection for credit. The seller of this credit default swap actually guarantees the product’s credit worthiness. In this process, the default risk [...]
Credit Derivatives
Credit derivatives refer to bilateral contracts which are privately held. These contracts permit the holders to manage their credit risk exposure. Such derivatives turn out to be financial assets. Examples of the better-known ones in the derivatives universe are swaps, forward contracts, and options. The price of these is necessarily based upon the credit risk of economic entities like governments, [...]
Credit History
Credit history is an official record that shows the company or personal history of borrowing and paying back loans. This history provides business or personal identifying information, a record of credit that the individual or company has, and negative elements such as bankruptcies and late payments. It describes how individuals use their money and finances. It lists out the number [...]
Credit Ratings Agencies
Credit Ratings Agencies are those companies whose purpose is to consider and report on the financial strength which firms and government agencies demonstrate. They report on national as well as international corporations and agencies in this capacity. Their reports are most interested in the ability of the entities in question to fulfill their obligations for both principal and interest repayments [...]
Credit Repair Organizations
Credit repair organizations are those which offer to assist individuals with clearing up their credit report and improving their credit scores. While a number of them are legitimate operations, others can be scams. Such credit repair clinics often charge exorbitant prices to perform services that individuals can do for themselves. There were enough problems with fraud or unfulfilled promises from [...]
Credit Report
A credit report is an individual or business’ credit history. This includes their record of borrowing and repaying money in the past. It similarly covers data pertaining to any late payments made or bankruptcies that have been declared. In some countries, credit reports are also referred to as credit reputations. When an American like you completes a credit application for [...]
Credit Risk
Credit Risk pertains to the possibilities that borrowers might not be able to pay back their loan. This means that the lender would potentially lose its loan principal amount as well as the interest which goes along with it. Such risk occurs as a result of a borrower premise. The borrowers almost always believe that they will be able to [...]
Credit Score
Credit Score refers to a number generated by the credit bureaus to represent the creditworthiness of an individual. The credit bureaus possess literally from hundreds to thousands of distinct lines worth of information on each person with a credit profile. This makes it extremely difficult for lending institutions to go through it all. Since they lack the man hours to [...]
Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse is a leading global Swiss-based banking giant whose history stretches back to 1856. Their global reach is supported by operations in more than 50 different countries. This banking group maintains over 48,000 employees who hail from more than 150 different countries around the globe. Their broad international reach allows the bank to create a well-balanced revenue stream geographically [...]
Credit Union
A credit union represents a financial cooperative. Members own these financial institutions. It is these members who both start and run them so that they can reduce costs for financial services and share profits with each other. There are a variety of sizes of these institutions. A credit union might be a small operation that volunteers run. It could also [...]
Creditor
Creditors are those financial institutions or individuals who extend credit to a business or other individual. They carry this out by providing financing which they expect will be paid back at a set time in the future. There is another type of creditor as well. This is a company which delivers services or supplies to a person or other business [...]
Crypto Currency
A crypto currency turns out to be a virtual currency. These alternative currencies deploy cryptography as a means of security. It makes them extremely hard to counterfeit since this security feature is complex. An element that consistently defines the various crypto currencies and simultaneously endears them to users is their independent nature. They cannot be issued nor controlled by any [...]
Currency
Currency is also known as money that is accepted by businesses, the public, and the government as payment for goods and services. This includes paper notes and coins that a government issues and that circulate around a country and its economy. Internationally, currency can be used to pay for imports in the balance of payments. Since ancient times currency has [...]
Currency Intervention
Currency intervention is also known as currency manipulation or forex intervention. These central bank-pursued interventions happen as they buy or sell their own national currency on the global foreign exchange markets. They do this to raise or lower the value of their currency. Though these types of manipulations have occurred since the Great Depression, they are fairly new as a [...]
Currency Pairs
Currency pairs are two currencies expressed in terms of each other. They are price quoted in the forex market. One currency’s value is always expressed against another currency, such as with GBP/USD. This creates the values of currency comparisons against other currencies. In a currency pair, the first one listed is referred to as the base currency. Forex market brokers [...]
Currency Standards
Currency standards are the typical means for fixing a currency at a set rate nowadays. A Currency Standard means that the value of a currency is pegged to a stronger, more internationally recognized currency, like the Euro or the Dollar. These Currency Standards are similarly known as reserve currency standards. Within the world reserve currency system, single national currencies actually [...]
Currency Trading
Currency trading is speculating on the largest financial market on earth. Despite the fact that this is the world’s largest, most liquid, and most impressive market, many individual traders do not know much about it. This is mostly because until Internet trading became popular, access to these markets was limited. Only the large banks, multinational businesses, and shadowy hedge funds [...]
Custodial Account
A Custodial Account refers to a particular type of savings account. These can be accessed via a mutual fund company, financial institution, or brokerage firm. With these accounts, an adult controls and manages the funds or assets on behalf of a minor who is less than 18 years old. State laws govern the rules that affect these special accounts. Minors [...]
Custodian Bank
A custodian bank is a special financial institution that carries the responsibility for protecting the financial assets of individuals or companies. These institutions can also be called simply custodians. Such outfits serve as a third party check that protects the assets they are guarding against the fund managers and any illegal activities they may pursue. Congress established these custodian banks [...]
Customer Base
A customer base refers to a company’s prospective customers who the business might be serving. There are many individuals who believe this only pertains to the customers whom a business already counts. Still analysts tend to include in those customers who share common buying habits in the category. This is the case even when the customer has not come into [...]
Cyclical Manipulation
Cyclical manipulation refers to government interference in the natural economic cycles. This can lead to extreme booms and busts over the long run as governments attempt to prop up booms and forestall busts. Cyclical manipulation is mostly accomplished through the altering of government set interest rates. This is accomplished on a regular basis by the Federal Reserve Board in the [...]