'Royalties' is explained in detail and with examples in the Economics edition of the Herold Financial Dictionary, which you can get from Amazon in Ebook or Paperback edition.
Royalties are payments which owners receive in exchange for the use of their property. This most typically covers natural resources, franchises, patents, and copyrighted works. Royalty payments go to the property in question’s legal owner. Individuals who want to utilize the owners’ patents, property, franchise, natural resources, or copyrighted works will do so with the intention of creating a revenue stream or realizing a lump sum income. Royalties are typically intended to provide compensation for the licensing of the asset. As such, these arrangements become legally binding.
Much of the time, these royalties are stated in percentage of revenue terms. They can also be arranged to fit a particular scenario or environment. They are often employed as the vehicle for realizing income in instances where the owner, inventor, or natural resource holder wishes to sell the product in question in exchange for payments against future revenues that this activity might create for the third party licensor.
An example of this is Microsoft. The computer software giant earns a royalty from every installation of the internationally standard Windows operating system on almost any computer a manufacturer produces. Such an example relates to creative content, copyrights, and patents.
A royalty could also apply to resources, trade marks, art works, books and published works, copyright materials, franchises, patents, and resource holdings. Even fashion designers are able to charge a royalty to other companies that wish to make use of their designs or names. Authors, production pros, and musical artists also receive this kind of compensation when a firm or individual uses their copyrighted and produced works. Cable and satellite firms pay a royalty to the owner of a television channel so they can offer the most stations in a country.
The oil and gas business is one that is rife with royalties. Companies provide a royalty to a landowner in exchange for permission to gather the natural resources off of their private property. This might amount to so much money per barrel of oil or per cubic foot of natural gas which they extract.
A license agreement is a key component of a royalty. It represents the terms by which the property owner will receive the payments. This clearly and legally explains the restrictions and limitations of the royalty in question. As an example, it would deal with the length of time the agreement will endure, the geographic territorial limitations, and the specific amounts they will pay for the various kinds of products utilized or extracted. These types of license agreements are differently and specifically regulated depending on whether the owner of the resource or property in question is a private individual or the government.
A royalty rate represents the specific amount of payment that must be paid for a given service or product. This will naturally depend on the kind of fee the third party is providing. There are a number of different factors involved in a royalty rate. Among the most frequently cited examples are alternative option availability, rights’ exclusivity, the relevant risks involved, technological sustainability, structure of the market demand, and scope of the innovation which the service or product offers.
These terms should not be confused with a royalty trust unit. Such units provide the holder of the unit with a share of the income which the properties a trust owns actually produce. These royalty trusts acquire ownership stakes in cash flows or general operating concerns. The royalty trust itself will own the cash flow or income which the company is generating. They will then pass through this money to the trust royalty unit holders. Such royalty units have often been viewed as positive and desirable investments since the income which the asset creates only becomes subject to individual tax levels. There is no so-called “double taxation” as common stocks dividends experience (on both the company earning the money and then the person receiving it again).